If the Israel Defense Forces conduct a ground campaign in Gaza, the threat of Hamas tunnels will be one of the most significant challenges to contend with. Many miles of these tunnels crisscross below the surface of Gaza, some as deep as 230 feet underground. Collectively, they offer Hamas fighters the means to protect themselves against the Israeli offensive, maneuver undetected below the surface, and launch attacks before returning to the security of the tunnels.

But what can Israeli forces do about the tunnels when they encounter them? Is it feasible to seal them? Can they be destroyed with bunker-buster munitions or other explosives? Are there other ways to render them unusable? The answers to these questions are complicated, and to explore them, John Spencer welcomes Dr. Daphne Richemond-Barak back to the Urban Warfare Project Podcast for this special episode. She is a professor at the Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy, and Strategy at Reichman University, the author of the book Underground Warfare, and the creator of the International Working Group on Subterranean Warfare.

You can listen to the discussion below or find the episode on Apple Podcasts, Stitcher, Spotify, TuneIn, or your favorite podcast app. Be sure to subscribe, and if you’re enjoying the Urban Warfare Project Podcast, please take a minute and leave the podcast a review or give it a rating!

Image credit: Israel Defense Forces