When we look back on the events of 2021, what did we learn about modern war? How has competition taken shape? What can we discern about the interests of states like China and Russia—and how they are setting out to pursue them? Where are the flashpoints where conflict is most likely?

This episode of the MWI Podcast tackles those questions and many more. In it, John Amble speaks to the directors of MWI’s themed projects. John Spencer joins to give an overview of the Urban Warfare Project’s research and describe the efforts that have gotten underway over the past year to help the US military better prepare for the unique challenges posed by cities. Kyle Atwell and Shawna Sinnott, who lead the Irregular Warfare Initiative, take stock of the role of irregular warfare after the end of America’s post-9/11 wars and in a new strategic environment. Liz Buchanan and Ryan Burke, directors of Project 6633, give listeners a sense of how competition is unfolding in two extraordinarily unique regions, the Arctic and Antarctica. And Matt Cavanaugh and Franky Matisek of the Homeland Defense Institute (HDI) at the US Air Force Academy describe some of the major themes explored in Shield Notes, a collaboration between MWI and HDI, and look back on a year that has seen homeland defense attract renewed interest. We’re also joined by Barnett Koven, who, along with Maggie Smith, curated a series of eighteen articles focused on the cyber domain and the information environment.

Listen to the full, special year-end episode below, and if you aren’t already subscribed to the MWI Podcast, be sure to find it on Apple PodcastsStitcher, or your favorite podcast app so you don’t miss an episode!

Image credit: Master Sgt. Alexander Burnett, DoD