The laws of war govern the initiation and conduct of armed conflict. What can be legitimately targeted? What constitutes a war crime? The laws of war provide answers to these questions and others. They apply everywhere, but there are unique considerations in certain environments—especially in cities. The hostilities in Gaza over the past several weeks offer a case in point.

To examine the challenges of applying and interpreting the laws of war in urban warfare, and to specifically explore the case of Gaza, John Spencer is joined in this episode by General Charles Dunlap. A retired major general and former deputy judge advocate general of the US Air Force, he is no a professor of the practice of law and executive director of the Center on Law, Ethics, and National Security at Duke Law School. His teaching and scholarship focus on, among many topics, national security and international law of armed conflict, as well as ethical issues related to the practice of national security law.

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Image credit: Israel Defense Forces