In 1952, Iceland expanded its territorial waters based on a ruling by the International Court of Justice. It triggered a series of confrontations with the United Kingdom that would continue for years. The episode would come to be known as the Cod Wars.

Today, Sea Shepherd, a marine conservation organization, works to disrupt illegal fishing. Its vessels travel the seas and actively seek to enforce maritime law.

What do these two case studies tell us about irregular warfare in the sea domain? How was Iceland able to secure a strategic victory against the much more powerful British Royal Navy? What role do nonstate and substate actors—like Sea Shepherd—play in this domain? This episode of the Irregular Warfare Podcast addresses these questions and more. To do so, hosts Ben Jebb and Lisa Munde are joined by Kevin Bilms, a career civil servant in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and author of “The Cod Wars and Lessons for Maritime Counterinsurgency,” and Dr. Claude Berube, a retired Navy commander who teaches at the US Naval Academy.

You can listen to the full episode below, or find it on Apple PodcastsStitcherTuneInSpotify, or your favorite podcast app. Be sure to subscribe so you don’t miss an episode!

Image credit: Saberwyn